Thulani Davis’s work as a writer includes theater, journalism, fiction, and poetry. She is the author of two novels, Maker of Saints and 1959, and Malcolm X, The Photographs (1993). She has written and narrated several television and radio documentaries. Ms. Davis is the librettist for three operas: Amistad (1997); X, The Life and Times of Malcolm X (1986) with Anthony Davis, and The E & O Line (1991), with Anne LeBaron (excerpts of which appear on mode 42). In 1993 she won a Grammy for album notes for Aretha Franklin, and was nominated for a Grammy for the opera X. Her most recent play, Everybody’s Ruby: Story of a Murder in Florida, premiered in 2001 at the New York Shakespeare Festival.